A New Perspective on Transport and Climate Change in Asia

Source: Authors using data from EDGAR Database and IPCC Sixth Assessment Report
GDP = Gross Domestic Product; Km = Kilometers; CO2 = Carbon dioxide
Source: Asian Transport Outlook Database (ADB-ATO, 2021) indicators: SEC-DEV-001, SEC-SEG-001, INF-TTI-016, INF-TTI-006, TES-VEP-021, TAS-PAG-001, TAS-FRA-001 (accessed: 22 July 2021)
GDP = Gross Domestic Product
Source: Asian Transport Outlook Database indicators: TAS-VEP-013, SEC-SEG-001 (accessed: 23 July 2021)
BRT = bus rapid transit; LRT = light rail transit; HSR = high-speed rail
Source: Asian Transport Outlook Database indicators: SEC-DEV-001, SEC-SEG-001, INF-TTI-005, INF-TTI-016, INF-UTI-001, INF-UTI-002, INF-UTI-003, INF-TTI-019 (accessed: 28 July 2021)
Source: Asian Transport Outlook Database Indicators: CLC-VRE-002, CLC-VRE-010, CLC-VRE-009, CLC-VRE-009 (accessed: 28 July 2021)
2W = 2 wheelers; 3W = 3 wheelers
Source: ITF Transport Outlook 2021
GDP = Gross Domestic Product; ATO = Asian Transport Outlook; CO2 = Carbon dioxide
Source: Asian Transport Outlook Database indicators: CLC-VRE-045, CLC-VRE-048, CLC-VRE-054, CLC-VRE-055, CLC-VRE-056, CLC-VRE-057 & SEC-SEG-001 (accessed: 4 Aug 2021)
GDP = Gross Domestic Product; CO2 = Carbon dioxide
Source: Asian Transport Outlook Database indicators: CLC-VRE-048, SEC-SEG-001 (accessed: 4 Aug 2021)
PKM = passenger kilometres-travel; Max = maximum; Min = minimum; km = kilometers
Source: Asian Transport Outlook Database indicators: TAS-PAG-007. TAS-FRA-008 (accessed: 25 July 2021)
BAU = business-as-usual; ICCT = International Council on Clean Transportation; ITF = International Transport Forum; GECO = Global Energy and Climate Outlook; APEC = Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation; ReMAP = Renewable Energy Roadmaps; IEA = International Energy Agency; ETP = Energy Transition Perspective; GCAM = Global Change Assessment Model; TRL = Transportation Research Laboratory; CAA = Clean Air Asia; ITPS = Institute for Transportation Policy Studies
Source: Authors
CAPEX = capital expenditure; CNG = Compressed Natural Gas; DMC = developing member country; kWh = kilowatt-hour; Calculations based on average DMC fuel prices and an average electricity price of 0.16 $/kWh; CAPEX includes battery replacement during vehicle lifetime based on average battery life span with 50% of current battery prices
Source: E-Mobility Options for ADB Developing Member Countries, Asian Development Bank (2019). http://dx.doi.org/10.22617/WPS190075-2
Source: Asian Transport Outlook Database indicator POL-VIS-002 Available: https://data.adb.org/media/8266/download (accessed: 14 July 2021)
Source: Asian Transport Outlook Database indicator: INF-ICT-001 Available: https://data.adb.org/media/7511/download (accessed: 28 July 2021)
Source: (IEA, 2020b); (DNV, 2019)
Sources: (UNEP, 2020)

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Supporting the development of low-carbon, safe, accessible and affordable transport systems for Asia and the Pacific. Follow for #sustainabletransport insights

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Asian Development Bank - Transport

Asian Development Bank - Transport

Supporting the development of low-carbon, safe, accessible and affordable transport systems for Asia and the Pacific. Follow for #sustainabletransport insights